He did not even get an official interview, however, and returned empty handed. Lamar tried again; he sent James Treat , a man of broad acquaintances in Mexico, as confidential agent. Treat worked long, gave promise of success, but accomplished nothing definite. Shortly before the failure of Treat, England promised assistance, and Lamar decided to make a third effort. He sent James Webb. Faring no better than his predecessors, Webb on his return urged the hostilities Lamar was considering.
A military convention with the revolting Mexican state of Yucatan was then made, but this diplomatic threat was ineffective as Yucatan soon renewed its allegiance to Mexico.
Woll withdrew after the Battle of Salado. You can remove the unavailable item s now or we'll automatically remove it at Checkout. During this short era, which began in and reached its conclusion in , Texas enjoyed all the attributes of a sovereign nation. Enterprise Cybersecurity. He raised the Mexican flag and declared the reconquest of Texas. Although the agreement was short of outright diplomatic recognition, it was progress. The Mexicans, however, argued that the border only extended to the Nueces River, north of the Rio Grande.
At the end of Lamar's administration, Texas-Mexican relations were actually more unfriendly than they had been at the beginning. Financial needs often shaped foreign policies. Of all the agents employed to secure loans, none served with greater distinction than James Hamilton.
At times Hamilton's work was entirely diplomatic, as he was well aware that recognition by foreign powers would facilitate his financial work in those nations. Given broad diplomatic powers, he negotiated with the governments of England, Netherlands, and Belgium, and his loan activities brought him in contact with influential men of many countries. His first success was in Holland, where on September 15, , a treaty of commerce was signed. In London he drew up three treaties: one of commerce and navigation, a second providing for British mediation in the Texas-Mexico difficulties concerning peace, and a third calling for the suppression of slave trade.
These were signed in November , but because of various delays ratifications were not exchanged until July 28, A great deal of Hamilton's time was spent trying to conclude a treaty with the Belgians; he was unsuccessful, however, as were his successors. While Hamilton enjoyed some success in his diplomatic endeavors, he found it impossible to negotiate the loan; and when Houston reassumed the presidency and reversed most of Lamar's policies, especially the financial ones, Hamilton's services were terminated.
Ashbel Smith was appointed and held conversations with Spanish officials relative to a treaty of commerce, by which Texas hoped to develop trade with Cuba, but no conclusion was reached. Smith's regular work as Texan envoy to London and Paris occupied so much of his time that he could not well extend the interests of Texas elsewhere. With Vincent Rumpff, representing the Hanse Towns of Hamburg, Lubeck, and Bremen, Daingerfield drew up a convention of amity, commerce, and navigation.
Hamburg refused to ratify, and the Senate of Lubeck also declined, but Bremen approved and in anticipation of ratification, appointed a collector of customs for Galveston. When the treaty reached Texas, annexation was the all-engrossing topic and no action was taken, ratifications in fact were never exchanged.
Meanwhile Daingerfield conferred with representatives of Prussia and other European powers but learned that they were not inclined to enter into any formal agreements, since the continued existence of Texas was doubtful in the face of renewed conversations on annexation. Houston favored annexation although his actions did not always indicate it.
In June he agreed to an armistice with Mexico. Houston agreed and sent James Pinckney Henderson to assist in the negotiations. A treaty proposing to admit Texas as a territory was drawn up but rejected by the United States Senate on June 8, The motives were varied, but undoubtedly most of the senators wanted to postpone the issue until after the national elections in November. The election of James K. Polk on an annexation platform was interpreted as a demand for immediate action and induced Tyler to renew his efforts.
Indians were simply removed from Georgia. Texans first tried to negotiate the Cherokees removal from the region, but in July , the Indians were forcibly ejected from Texas at the Battle of the Neches River in Van Zandt County.
enter Houston's close friend, the aging Cherokee chief Philip Bowles, was killed in the battle while Houston was visiting former President Andrew Jackson in Tennessee. The Cherokees moved on to Arkansas and Indian Territory.
Houston was returned to the presidency of the Republic in His second administration was even more frugal than his first; soon income almost matched expenditures. Houston re-entered negotiations with the Indians in Central Texas in an attempt to quell the raids on settlements. A number of trading posts were opened along the frontier to pacify the Indians. War fever reached a high pitch in Texas in , and Houston grew increasingly unpopular because he would not launch an offensive war against Mexico.
In March , Gen. A force of 3, Texas volunteers gathered at San Antonio demanding that Mexico be punished. Houston urged calm, but the clamor increased when Mexican Gen. Adrian Woll captured San Antonio in September. He raised the Mexican flag and declared the reconquest of Texas. Ranger Capt.
Jack Hays was camped nearby. Within days volunteers had joined him, eager to drive the Mexican invaders from Texas soil.
Woll withdrew after the Battle of Salado. Alexander Somervell was ordered by Houston to follow with troops and harass the Mexican army. He reached Laredo in December and found no Mexican troops.
Somervell crossed the Rio Grande to find military targets. A few days later, the commander returned home, but soldiers decided to continue the raid under the command of William S. On Christmas day, this group attacked the village of Mier, only to be defeated by a Mexican force that outnumbered them to After attempting mass escape, the survivors of the Mier expedition were marched to Mexico City where Santa Anna, again in political power, ordered their execution. When officers refused to carry out the order, it was amended to require execution of one of every 10 Texans.
The prisoners drew beans to determine who would be shot; bearers of black beans were executed. Texans again were outraged by the treatment of prisoners, but the war fever soon subsided. As Houston completed his second term, the United States was becoming more interested in annexation. Texas had seriously flirted with Great Britain and France, and the Americans did not want a rival republic with close foreign ties on the North American continent. Preston Brooks and Charles Sumner The South Secedes Strengths and Weaknesses: North vs.
The Road to Appomattox The Assassination of the President Rebuilding the Old Order The New Tycoons: John D. The New Tycoons: J. Politics of the Gilded Age Labor vs. Eugene V.
This book is unique among the histories of the Texas Republic: it is the first to examine the fledgling nation from the point of view of its dynamic political life. A Political History of the Texas Republic, - Kindle edition by Stanley Siegel. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or.
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